Syntax
Syntax is the grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a language statement. (Semantics is the meaning of these elements.) Syntax applies to computer languages as well as to natural languages. Usually, we think of syntax as “word order.” However, syntax is also achieved in some languages such as Latin by inflectional case endings. In computer languages, syntax can be extremely rigid as in the case of most assembler languages or less rigid in languages that make use of “keyword” parameters that can be stated in any order. Using syntax
1.Meaning:
“Syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. Syntactic investigation of a given language has as its goal the construction of a grammar that can be viewed as a device of some sort for producing the sentences of the language under analysis.”

2.THE USING OF SYNTAX
Syntax is the name given to the rules of structuring of the parts of speech to create clauses, phrases and sentences to create meaning.
• Using statements: to establish facts, express feelings and appreciate others.
• Using questions to acquire information and cause thinking.
• Using commands: to gain compliance.
• Using exclamations: to grab attention and evoke emotion.
• Clauses: The basic structure used in sentences.
o Clause arrangement: Subtle changes of arrangement and meaning.
• Phrases: Even smaller parts of sentences.
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun to indicate the function of grammar in a phrase or clause. This grammatical function as an example is the subject of the sentence, the object of the sentence or ownership. Although all languages melakykan distinction grammatical function on the noun, the word usually refers to the case of grammatical functions that dilakuka distinction on noun morphology or in other words the nouns in the language forms were amended to show case. This shape change is a declination which is a flexion. Berubungan case, but unlike saperti thematic roles agent and patient, although a few cases in each language generally corresponds to a particular thematic role, the case is the concept of syntax and thematic

3. Syntax indonesia

Gabungan kata yang juga membentuk satu kesatuan, tetapi tidak menimbulkan makna baru disebut

frasa
, contoh:
sapu ijuk, meja itu, kepala botak, rambut gondrong, mulut lebar.

Jenis kata majemuk .

Kata majemuk setara, yang masing-masing unsurnya berkedudukan sama, contoh:
tua muda, lakibini, tegur sapa, besar kecil, ibu bapak, tipu muslihat
dan
baik buruk

Kata majemuk bertingkat, yaitu yang salah satu unsurnya menjelaskan unsur yang lain. Jenis katamajemuk itu bersifat endosentris, yakni salah satu unsurnya dapat mewakili seluruh konstruksi,contoh:
kamar mandi, sapu tangan, meja gambar
, dan
meja tulis.
Kata kerja atau verba dibedakan atas:

1.Kata kerja transitif, yaitu verba yang memadukan objek, contoh:
membeli, memikirkan,mengutarakan, membahas, menertawakan, memahami, menanamkan
.Antara verba transitif dengan objek langsung tidak boleh disela oleh preposisi atau kata depan.Jadi bentuk ujaran seperti:
“Panitia membicarakan tentang keuangan”
tidak benar atau rancu.Kalimat di atas dapat dibakukan dengan menghilangkan kata
tentang.
2.Kata kerja transitif ganda, ialah verba yang memerlukan objek dua, contoh:
membelikan, dan membawakan dalam kalimat.
a. Ayah membelikan adik sepeda mini;
b.Kakak membawakan kakek barang bawaannya.
3.Kata kerja intransitif, ialah verba yang tidak memerlukan objek, contoh:
berlari, berdiri, tertawa,menyanyi, merokok, melamun.
4Kata kerja reflektif, yang menyatakan tindakan untuk diri sendiri, contoh:
bersolek, berhias,bercukur, bercermin, mengaca.
5. Kata kerja resiprok, yang menunjukkan tindakan atau perbuatan berbalasan atau menyatakanmakna saling, contoh:
bergelut, berpandangan, bergandengan, bertinju, pukul-memukul, surat-suratan, senggol-senggolan
.

Majemuk bertingkat
Kalimat majemuk bertingkat pada dasarnya adalah kalimat tunggal yang salah satu fungsinya diperluasdan perluasannya itu membentuk sebuah pola klausa.Di dalam kalimat majemuk bertingkat terdapat klausa utama (klausa bebas) dan klausa terikat. Dengandemikian, dalam kalimat majemuk bertingkat terdapat gagasan utama dan gagasan bawahan (gagasanpenjelas). Namun demikian, perlu diperhatikan bahwa gagasan utama tidak selamanya berada pada klausautama. Perhatikan keterangan berikut dengan baik.
(a) Apabila anak kalimat merupakan perluasan fungsi keterangan,
gagasan utama terdapat padaklausa utama yang merupakan induk kalimat.Contoh:
(1) Ketika ayah pergi, ibu kesepian di rumah.
GU: lbu kesepian.
(2) Wati menyirami tanaman itu setiap hari supaya buahnya lebat.
GU: Wati menyirami tanaman.
(3) Aminah bahagia karena suaminya naik pangkat.
GU: Aminah bahagia.
(b) Apabila anak kalimat merupakan perluasan fungsi objek (anak kalimat merupakan objek daripredikat verba transitif),
gagasan utama terdapat pada anak kalimat.Contoh:
(1) Presiden mengatakan bahwa pembangunan harus dilanjutkan.
GU: Pembangunan harus dilanjutkan.
(2) Mat Kemplo menceritakan bahwa kakeknya jatuh dari ayunan.
GU: Kakeknya jatuh.
(c) Apabila anak kalimat merupakan pelengkap,
gagasan utama terdapat pada induk kalimat.Contoh:
(1) Saya berharap hal itu tidak akan terjadi.
GU: Saya berharap.
(2) Mereka lupa bahwa mereka harus melunasi pinjamannya pada akhir bulan ini
GU: Mereka lupa

.ENGLISH SYNTAX —
• 2. LANGUAGE
o Language is a social, cultural and psychological phenomenon that serves the purpose of communication among human beings
• 3. LINGUISTICS
o Linguistics can be defined as the study of human language in all its manifestations.
• 4. LINGUISTICS
o Linguistics focuses on different aspects of the language, such as: Word formation and inflection; (Morphology); Sounds (Phonology). Structure (Syntax). Meaning (Semantics), and The relationship between language use and society (Pragmatics ).
• 5. UNIT ONE: BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURES
o Lexical categories are word based: noun, verb, adjective. Phrasal categories are phrase-based: noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, etc.
• 6. Linguistic Phenomena
o These phenomena support the fact that human languages are category-based Anaphora (or anaphor) is a linguistic phenomenon referring to entities mentioned before in the same sentence or discourse: Mary likes her new job. Students and teachers feel tired.
• 7. Linguistic Phenomena Coordination
o uses conjunctions to join words or phrases belonging to the same category: Teachers and students are attending a lecture Recursion enables speakers to make use of a finite set of rules to generate an infinite number of sentences. Mike, who is a doctor, lives next door.
• 8. Linguistic Phenomena Distribution
o states which words and phrases can appear in a particular position in a sentence. For example: NPs can appear in subject or object position.
• 9. LINGUISTIC PHENOMENA
o Intrusión refers to the insertion of parenthetical expressions like “I guess”, “certainly”, usually” and others. Usually they visit us in October They usually visit us in October
• 10. Core Sentence Patterns
o Core sentence patterns are basic strings of words that express meaning and have an associated structural description called Base Phrase Marker.

The Similarity of syntax between indonsian with English
1. Both English and bahasa Indonesia use the same 26 letter alphabet, divided similarly between vowels and consonants. Neither language uses accent marks for any of the 26 letters.
2. The ways of arranging sentences and paragraphs are similar.
3. Both languages use similar methods of classifying word types into nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, etc ,
4. Both languages form words in the same way by attaching prefixes and suffixes to root words
5. Both languages have transitive & intransitive structures
6. Both languages have passive & active voices – bahasa Indonesia uses “di-” prefix to indicate the passive voice while English uses the “-ed” suffix.
7. Both languages use similar numbering systems except that bahasa Indonesia uses a decimal(dot) instead of a comma as 3 digit separator (be aware that English is inconsistent with terms for large numbers – American system and British/European system are different)
8. Both languages use similar punctuation marks such as commas, periods, parenthesis, question marks, quotation marks, hyphens, etc.
9. Symbols are nearly the same for both languages
10. Capitalization is nearly the same for both languages
11. There are many words that are identical to both languages and even more that are very similar. See our website lists – 780 identical words and 1,200 that are very similar. Most spellings for names of the world’s countries are the same or very similar in both languages.
The similarity of grammar Indonesian with English
Subject/predicate: All sentences are about something or someone. The something or someone that the sentence is about is called the subject of the sentence. In the following sentences the subjects are shown in red. Note how the subject is often, but not always, the first thing in the sentence.
• John often comes late to class.
My friend and I both have a dog named Spot.
• Many parts of the Asian coastline were destroyed by a tsunami in 2004.
• The old hotel at the end of the street is going to be knocked down to make way for a new supermarket.
• Sitting in a tree at the bottom of the garden was a huge black bird with long blue tail feathers.
• The grade 7 Korean boy who has just started at FIS speaks excellent English.
• On Saturdays I never get up before 9 o’clock.
• Before giving a test the teacher should make sure that the students are well-prepared.
• Lying on the sofa watching old films is my favourite hobby.________________________________________
The predicate contains information about the someone or something that is the subject. The example sentences above are shown again, this time with the predicate marked in green.
• John often comes late to class.
• My friend and I both have a dog named Spot.
• Many parts of the Asian coastline were destroyed by a tsunami in 2004.
• The old hotel at the end of the street is going to be knocked down to make way for a new supermarket.
• Sitting in a tree at the bottom of the garden was a huge black bird with long blue tail feathers.
• The grade 7 Korean boy who has just started at FIS speaks excellent English.
• On Saturdays I never get up before 9 o’clock.
• Before giving a test the teacher should make sure that the students are well-prepared.
• Lying on the sofa watching old films is my favourite hobby.________________________________________
Simple subject/predicate: As you can see from the example sentences above both the subject and the predicate can consist of many words. The simple subject is the main word in the subject, and the simple predicate is the main word in the predicate. The simple subject is always a noun/pronoun and the simple predicate is always a verb.
In the following sentences the simple subject is shown in red and the simple predicate is shown in green.
• My ESL teacher speaks a little Russian.
• The young girl with the long black hair fell from her bike yesterday in heavy rain.
• At the back of the line in the cafeteria yesterday was a large brown dog with a yellow collar around its neck!
• My friend and I are going on holiday together this year.
• Your mother or your father must come to the meeting.
• Sitting in a tree at the bottom of the garden was a huge black bird with long blue tail feathers.
From the last three examples sentences above you will notice that the simple subjects and simple predicates can be more than one word.